FER FIRHAU DESH SAKO HINDUVAN KO
MAKO NAHE MITHYA SAKHO MAN CHAUHAN KO
-- RAJA BHAGVANT RAY KHICHI
MUDCHAURA VARTMAN ME PHATEHPUR DISTIC KE GAGIPUR TAHSHIL SE 10 K.M DUR
HATHGAVA GAV ME HAI JO KEE ASOTHAR KE RAJ BHAGAVAN RAY KHICHI KE VIRTA
AUR PARAKRAM KE LIYE JANA JATA HAI.MUDCHAURA ME RAJA BHAGAVANT RAY KHICHI
JI KA SAHID STHID STAL BAHUT HEE PRAKRIT RUP ME BANA HUVA HAI,VAHA KA DRASH
BAHUT HEE RAMNEEY HAI AAJ BHEE VA HA PAR 1700 SATABDI KE BAVLEE BANEE HUVEE
HAI AUR VAHA KE LOGO KEE MUDCHAURA KE PRATI BAHUT HEE SRADHYA HAI ,VAHA KE
DIXIT FAMILY(BRAHMAN)JI KA KAHNA HAI KEE AAJ BHEE VAHA RAT KE SAMAY TALVARO
KE BAJNE AUR GHODE ME SAVAR HOKAR JANAE KE KEE AVAJ SUNAYE DETI HAI,AUR KAHA
JATA HAI KEEE VARTMAN ME US BAULEE KA PANI(JAL) SUKHE KE BIMARI KE LIYE BAHUT
HEE LABHDAYAK HAI,RAJA BHAGAVANT RAY KE SAMAY PAR MUSLIM SASHKO KA HINDUSTAN
ME BAHT HEE JAYADA ATANK THA,JABRJASTI KOGO KO ISLAM DHARM APNANA PADTA THA
ISLAM NA KABUL HONE PAR UNHE UNKE PARIVAR VALO KE SATH MAUT KE GHAT UTAR DIYA
JATA HATA.AAJ BHEE ASOTHAR KE RAJA APNE ARKI CHAUHAN PARIVAR KE BAHUT HEE
SUBHCHINTAK HAI AUR DONO KE ACHE PARIVARIK SAMBANDH HAI. NOVEMBAR 2008 ME
Dr.MAHENDRA PRATAP SINGH CHAUHAN NE MUDCHAURA KA JIRNOUDHAR CAPTAN SUGHAR SINGH CHAUHAN JI KE SAHYOG SE KARAYA HAI. ARKI-CHITRAKOOT U.P-INDIA SE HAI.
EXPENSION OF THE VICEROYALTY OF OUDH 47
3.—THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST BHAGWANT SINGH UDARD,
In the beginning of 1732 A. D. when Sarbuland Khan
was governor of Allahabad, Bhagwant Singh, son of Udaru,
a Khichi Rajput and a petty zemindar of Ghazipur and
Asothar* in the sarkar of Kora Jahanabad in the Allahabad
suha, now in the modern district of Fatehpur in the United
Provinces, rebelled against the local Faujdar, Jan-nisar Khan.
Confident of the support of his brother-in law, Wazir
Qamruddin Khan who had married his sister, Jan-nisar
Khanf neglected his duties and tyrannis d over the people.
The cultivators and zemindars alike had grown sick of his
executions and tyranny. He picked a quarrel with
Bhagwant Singh on some religious matter [mamilat-i'dimoi).
The Khichi chief broke out into open rebellion and gave
much trouble to the Faujdar. In the month of March,
1732, Jan-nisar Khan, therefore, left Kora to chastise the
rebel and marched in the direction of Ghazipur. One day,
when the Faujdar's camp was at a distance of four miles
from his, Bhagwant Singh, who was a man of considerable
personal prowess and courage, suddenly appeared before
Jan-nisar Khan's tent, with his troops and his drums beating
aloud, at the time of asar prayer (about 4 p. m) The Khan,
who was drunk and asleep was awakened by the sound of
Bhagwant Singh's drums He mounted his elephant and
directed, in vain, his miserable and discontented troops to
get ready for the battle. Bhagwant Singh pounced upon
•Ghazipur is 8 miles north of the Jamuna and 9 miles south-Wist
of Fatehpur ami Asothar is 3 miles north of the river and 11
miles south-east of Ghazipur sheet 63 c. The Marathi letters
sometimes call him Bhagvvat Singh, sometimes Bhagat Singh and
sometimes even Jaswant Singh.
† Klliot, Vol VIII p. 341 has that ''Jan-nisar Khan had married
sister of Qamruddin Khan, the minister.. " It is evidently a
translation of the translation of Xhe
translation of the Siyar, vol. I 269. also gives wrong translation
and cal's Jan-nisar Qamruddin Khan's brother. Neville, Distt. Gazetteer
of Fatehpur (1906), p. 156, copies Mustafa's mistake. Neville's view
that Kora Jahana-bad was then in Qudh is also erroneous. U was in the
FIRST TWO KINGS OF OUDH
Jan-nisar Khan and made short work of him and his few faithful followers
vvho had gathered round his person. The victor obtained possession of
the Khan's camp and baggage and brought a considerable portion of the
disetrict of Kora Jahanabad under his authority.*
When the news of this disaster reached Delhi, Wazir Qamruddin Khan sent
his nephew Azimullah Khan with a strong force to punish Bhagwant Singh
and rescue the family of Jan-nisar Khan. On Azim-ullah's near approach,
the clever Rajput left his home and took refuge in the jungle. Azim-ullah
Khan obtained possession of Kora and returned to Delhi only after some days
' stay, leaving the district in the charge of Khawajim Beg Khan. Hardly
had his back turned when Bhagwant Singh issued out of his hiding, killed
Khawajim Beg Khan and turned his men out of the district.f
Urged by his wife, Qamruddin Khan, wedded to wine and women, at last crossed
into the Doab at the head of 40,000 horse and 30,000 musketeers, in
June. 1733 and besieged Bhagwant Singh in his fort of Ghazipur. His
troops being tired of a long journey, the wazir only posted his army
on three sides of the fort and postponed attack to the next day. But
the bird flew away before day-break by a clever ruse. To lull his enemy's
suspicion Bhagwant Singh kept on firing on the Mughals and when it was
midnight he escaped from the side ot the fort which was left unguarded,
crossed the Jarana, running 8 miles south of Ghazipur, before day.break
and took refuge in the country of Chhatrasal Bundela's sons. Qamruddin Khan
occupied the fort and ordered the construction of a bridge to cross
* Warid, 221b-222a. Other historians like, Hadia p. G8T; Shakir, p, 22;
Siyar II 467 give a very brief account. Hadia p. 680 says that into
Bhagwant's hands fell the ladies of Jan-nisar Khan's harem. One of them
became his son, Hup Singh's mistress. Muntkhn-lud-Tawarihh, Elliot. VIII
341 n. says that she was the Faujdar's daughter and that she committed
suicide to save her honour.
† Shakir; 22. Siyar II. 468.
EXPANSION OF THE VICEROYALTY OF OUDH 49
the river in pursuit of the rebel.* But, before he could do so, he had to
hurry back to Delhi to thwart a plot formed by Khan Dauran, Sarbuland Khan
and Saadat Khan to deprive him of his office. This was Bhagwant Singh's
opportunity. He entered into an alliance with the Marathas at Banda and,
with their help, drove out the wazir's men and became bolder than ever. A
petty zemindar as he was, he could not be reduced by all the armed strength
of the Empire.f
The agressions of Bhagwant Singh remained unpunished till the Emperor formally
appointed Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-mulk Paujdar of Kora Jahanabad in addition to
his former office of Governor of Oudh towards the end of 1735 A. D. Saadat Khan
received, on his journey to Delhi, under the imperial summons, a letter from
Qamr-ud-din Khan, requesting him to chastise Bhagwant Singh and probably also
a farman from Muhammad Shah appointing him to the government of Kora Jahanabad.
He immediately retraced his steps, turned to his left, crossed the Ganges and
by forced marches reached Kora on the 6th of November, 1735. Bhagwant Singh,
whose spies brought him the timely news of the Nawab's arrival, sallied out of
Ghazipur with his force numbering ten to twelve thousand men,‡ and suddenly
came upon Burhan-ul-Mulk near Kora. Saadat Khan, who had hardly recovered from
the fatigue of the day's march, hastily arrayed his huge army of 40,000 troops
besides a large park of artillery and directed his gunners to open fire on the
advancing enemy. Seeing the loss of a considerable number of his men, Bhagwant
Singh, avoiding the deadly
* Warid 222b; Harda 680; Elliot, VIII. 342; Selections from the Peshwa Daftar,
Vol. 14. Letter No. 9.
‡ Selections from the Peshwa Daftar, Vol. 14, Letters No. 40, 41 and 42. Pustam Ali,
Elliot VII, p, 52, gives the No, as 25,000, which is ' incorrect.
FIRST TWO KINGS OP OUDH
fire, delivered such a fierce charge on Abu Turab Khan's* division, who was leading
the Nawab's van, that his ranks were throughly shattered. Immediately galloping his
horse to Abu Turab's elephant, the brave Rajput gave such a violent spear thrust in
the breast of his adversary that it pierced through his back and lodged itself into
the board of the howdah. Abu Turab Khan fell instantly lifeless on his elephant.
Bhagwant Singh now proceeded against Saadat Khan's elephant, whereupon Mir Khudayar
who was posted by the side of the Nawab with six thousand horse and one thousand
turned to face the enemy. Pushing on with great vigour, Bhagwant attacked Khudayar
Khan's division and put him to flight. Then he turned to Saadat Khan. But, at this
stage of the battle, Sheikh Ruhul Amin Khan Bilgrami, the uncle of the historian
Murtaza Husain Khan, Shaikh Abdulla Khan of Ghazipur and Durjan Singh, Chaudhri of
Kora from Saadat Khan's right and Aztmit Ullah Khan from his left surrounded him
from all sides and began shooting arrows at him. Bhagwant Singh faced the odds
unflinchingly and slew soveral of his assailants; but he was also shot dead by
Durjan Singh who, according to the author of the Siyar, was a relation of his but
had joined his enemy.f The battle cost the parties the lives of 5,000 men. Besides
being himself wounded, Saadat Khan lost sixteen of his brave and trusted officers
and a host of his troops. The victorious Khan sent Bhagwant Singh's head and his
skin stuffed with straw to Delhi, where Rustam Ali Khan, the author of the
Tarikh-i-Hindi, saw them hanging in the market near the
* It is said that when Saadat Khan entered his tent after his journey, he had put
on a green robe and had a long white beard. Bhagwant s spies marked this and so at
the time of the battle he attacked Abu Turab Khan who had put on a green robe and
had a long white beard like Saadat Khan. The latter had, however, changed the green
dress for a white one. Siyar 1. 271.
† Siyar. 11.468. Mustafa, the translator adds without the warranty in the text that
Durjan Singh had long been in Saadat Chan's service, Eng, T. I, 271.
EXPANSION OF THE VlCEROYALTY OF OUDH 51
police office. Saadat Khan appointed Shaikh AbduUa Ghazipuri his deputy in the sarkar
of Kora Jahanabad and left hitn and his nephew and son-in-law, Abulmansur Khan, there,
while he himself proceeded to Delhi and waited on the Emperor on 22ud November, 1735.*
Sometime after, Bhagwant Singh's son, Rup Singh, who had taken refuge in Bundelkhand,
enlisted the support of the Maratha agent, Gobind Balhil, and meditated the recovery of
his paternal estate with the help of the Deccanis. The Bundelu Rajns were also willing
to help Rup Singh in his venture.† Abulmansur Khan, therefore, wrote to Saadat Khan
Burhan-ul-Mulk, requesting his presence; accordingly the Khan started for Kora Jahanabad
on the 18th of February, 17356. But the Marathas and the Rajas of Bundelkhand were not
earnest in their promise to the fugitive son of Bhagwant, for we hoar nothing more about
Kora in the pages of the Muslim historians nor even in the Marathi letters. The district
must have quietly submitted to Saadat Khan Burhan ul mulk's rule.‡
* Hadia. 680; Saadat-i-Jawed in Elliot, Vlll. 342; Rustam Ali in Elliot, Vlll fiiyar. 11
4G8; Shakir. 22; Maadan IV 97a and h; Selections from the Peshwa Daftar, Vol H. Letters,
No. 40, 41 and 42.
† Selections from the Peshwa Daftar, Vol. 15, Letter No, 10.
‡ siyar. 11. 468
Sambhu Nath Misra (fl. 1749) attended the court of Bhagwant Ray Khichi,
Raja, of Asothar. He wrote
Saadat Ali Khan I (Burhan al-Mulk)
Mir Muhammad Amin ibn Shaykh Muhammad Nasir Burhan al-Mulk al-Musawi
(Nishapur finals del segle XVII-Delhi 21 de març de 1739), fou el
fundador de la dinastia de nawwab-wazirs d'Awadh a l'Índia (1724-1754).
Va anar a l'Índia en data desconeguda però el 1711 ja estava al servei
de Sarbuland Khan comandant dels Kara-Manikpur. Quan va pujar al tron
de Delhi Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719) va arribar a funcionari d'impostos
(naib karori). El 1719 va poder sotmetre als zamindars rajputs i jats i
fou nomenat comandant de Hindawn Biyana. Va participar en el complot
contra l' amir al-umara Husayn Ali Khan Barha, i quan va triomfar va
obtenir (1720) el títol de Saadat Khan Bahadur amb grau de 5000 i el
comandant de 3000 cavallers. El mateix any fou nomenat governador d'
Akbarabad (Agra) i al cap d'un mes (novembre de 1720) va rebre el títol
de Bahadur Djang i les insígnies de mahi maratib. El 1722 fou nomenat
governador d'Awadh i va sotmetre als shaykhzades de Lucknow; va
reorganitzar la província i va incrementar la recaptació i l'emperador
Muhammad Shah el va recompensar amb el títol pel que fou conegut,
Va establir el seu control sobre tot l'Awadh, aleshores un territori en
conflicte, i va castigar als senyor feudals rebels de Benares i Djawnpur.
El 1735 va rebre el districte de Korah-Djahanabad,
on el senyor local Bhagwant Ray, que causava problemes,
va resultar mort en un xoc contra les forces de Burhan. Després
va anar a Delhi per servir de prop a l'emperador Muhammad. El 1737
va atacar als marathes que havien ocupat part del Doab, els va derrotar i
els va expulsar amb fortes pèrdues; en revenja els marathes van tacar Delhi.
El 1739 Nadir Shah de Pèrsia va envair l'Índia. Burhan va sortir d'Awadh amb
30000 homes i fou atacat abans d'arribar al campament imperial de Karnal,
però encara que va perdre part del bagatge, va atacar als perses i, reconegut
per un oficial persa nadiu de Nishapur, fou capturat i portat al campament de
Nadir. En les negacions de pau després de la victòria de Nadir Shah, es va
acordar una indemnització de cinc milions de rupies entre Nadir i Nizam al-Mulk
Asaf Djah, representant de l'emperador, i llavors Burhan va suggerir a Nadir,
per motius desconeguts, d'augmentar aquesta indemnització.
Deixat en llibertat va poder tornar a Delhi on va morir al cap de poc
(21 de març de 1739); la causa de la mort ha donat lloc a especulacions:
suïcidi o una ferida mal curada.
THE MUGHAL COURT & HINDI LITERATURE 49
BodhaFlrozabadl (fl. circ. 1773-1803) was connected
with Panna. He was the author of the Ishqnama and
some detached verses which are much admired. He
was a poet of love, and his verses were written mostly
in praise of a courtesan named Subhan.
Jan Gopdl (fl. 1776) was the author of the
Samarsdr, a work which is said to be full of poetic
Devkl Nandan (fl. 1784-1800) wrote the Sringdr
Charitry which is a Nayak-Nayika Bhed> and other
much-praised works connected with the art of poetry.
Than Ram, or Than (fl. 1791), a Bhat, was the
author of a work on poetics called Dalel Prakas.
Benl (fl. 1792-1817) wrote works on poetics, rheto-
ric, etc. His best verses are said to be verses of satire.
Bhaun (fl. 1794), a Bhat, who was skilled in all the
graces of poetry, wrote in Braj Bhasha works connected
with the poetic art.
Bhikdrl Das (fl. 1734-1750) was a Kayasth of
Pratapgarh, in Bundelkhand. He is more generally
known by the name of Das. His patron was Hindupati,
brother of Raja Prithvlpati. He ^borrowed phrases
from other poets, especially from Sripati, but is con-
sidered nevertheless to be an excellent poet. Besides
many works connected with the art of poetry he also
translated the Vishnu Pur ana into Hindi verse.
Guman Mttra (fl. 1744) attended the court of
Akbar Ali Khan. He translated the Naishadha of ?ri
Harsha and wrote several works on poetics.
Raghu Nath (fl. 1745), of Benares, was the father
of Gokul Nath, who is celebrated as the translator of
the Mahabharata into Hindi. Raghu Nath was a
writer on the art of poetry, his works being much
admired. They include a commentary on the Sat Sal
of Bihari Lai.
Kumar Mani Bhatt (fl. 1746) was a very skilled
poet, who wrote a good work on poetics called Rasik
Sambhu Nath MUra? (fl. 1749) attended the court of
Bhagwant Ray Khichi, Raja of Asothar. He wrote
60 A HISTORY OF HINDI LITERATURE
Ishwarl Prasdd Tripdthl (fl. 1673) wrote the Ram
Bilas Rdmdyan, which is a translation of Valmiki's
Bdl All (fl. circ. 1692) was the author of two works
both in praise of Rama and SIta and entitled NehprakaS
and Slid Rant Dhydnmahjari, Jdnk Rasikl Saran (fl.
1703) wrote the Avadh Sdgar, which is a poem in
honour of Rama. Bhagwant Ray (fl. 1750) was the
ruler of Asothar, in the district of Fatehpur, and for
several years resisted the attacks of the Mughal
Emperor, till he was killed by treachery in 1760.
He was the author of a Rdmdyan. Another work
dealing with the story of Rama was the Ram Bilas
of $ambhu Nath (fl. 1750). Tutsi Sahib (1763-1843)
was the eldest son of the Raja of Poona, but was un-
willing to succeed to the throne. He therefore left his
kingdom and renounced the world, and becoming a
wandering ascetic finally settled in Hathras. Besides
many hymns, he wrote a work called the Ghat-
Rdmdyan. He claimed that in a previous birth he
was none other than the great Tulsl Das himself, and
had in that birth composed the Ghat-Rdmdyan, but as it
aroused a great deal of opposition it was not published
to the world but the Rdm-charit-mdnas was substituted
in its place. His work differs in style and language,
as well as in subject matter, from that of his more-
renowned namesake, and is decidedly inferior in
Madhu Sudan Das (fl. circ. 1782), who was a
poet of considerable merit, was the author of the
Rdmasvamedh, in which he describes the horse-sacrifice
made by Rama. Like Tulsl Das he was a devotee of
Rama, and his poetry resembles that of the great
Maniytlr Singh, also called Y&r (fl. circ. 1785),
was another devotee of Rama who was a skilful poet.
He was a Kshatriya, of Benares. His works include
the Saundarya Laharl> the Sundark&nd^ and the
HanumQn Chhabblsi^ all of whicji deal with some of
the legends regarding Rama and Hanuman.
Sambhu Nath Misra (fl. 1749) attended the court of
Bhagwant Ray Khichi, Raja of Asothar. He wrote several
much-admired works on poetics and was the preceptor of
&iv Arsela and other poets.
JUDGEMT BY-Er.vikas singh chauhan